A doctrine which tests truth by its practical consequences. Truth is therefore held to be relative and not attained by metaphysical speculation.2>-+
it was first formulated by C.S.Peirce and was developed by William James.
Symbolism works under the surface to tie the story‘s external action to the theme. It was often produced through allegory， giving the literal event and its allegorical counterpart a one-to-one correspondence.
Dadaism refers to an international nihilistic movement amone European artists and writers that lasted from 1916-1922. it originated in the widespread disillusionment engendered by world war 1. Dada attacked conventional standards of aesthetics and behavior and stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation. Dada principles were eventually modified to become the basis of surrealism in 1924.
109. The Angry young men（愤怒的青年）
In the mid-1950s and early 1960s， there appeared a group of young novelists and playwrights with lower-middle-class or working-class background， who were known as “The Angry young men”2> they demonstrated a particular disillusion over the depressing situation in Britain and launched a bitter protest against the outmoded social and political values in their society.3> kingsley Amis is a leading figure of this group.
Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe， regards human existence as unexplainable， and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one‘s acts.2>its famous motto is “existence precedes essence”（存在先于本质）
Anti-hero is a character who lacks the qualities needed for heroism.
2>an anti-hero does not posses nobility of life or mind and does not have an attitude marked by high purpose and lofty aim.
3>anti-hero typically distrust conventional values and are unable to commit themselves to any ideals. they generally feel helpless in a world， over which they have no control. Anti-heroes usually accept succumb to， and often celebrate， their positions as social outcasts.
112. Round Character（丰满的人物）
A Round Character is complex and undergoes development， sometimes reaches the point that the reader is surprise.
113. Flat character（平淡的人物）
Flat character is relatively uncomplicated and does not change throughout the course of a literary work.
114. Oedipus complex（俄狄浦斯情结/ 爱母厌父情结）
Oedipus complex is a term coined by Sigmund Freud to designate a son‘s subconscious feeling of love toward his mather and jealousy and hatred toward his father.
2>D.H. Lawrence‘s Sons and lovers is a case in point.
The narrator is capable of knowing， seeing and telling all the actions of the character. And the narrator feels free to make comments on the meaning of actions.
2> it is characterized by freedom in shifting from the exterior world to the inner selves of a number of characters and by a freedom in movement both in time and space.
Poetry is one of the three types （or genres） of literature. The others being prose and drama. Poems are often divided into lines and stanzas. Many poem emply regular rhythmical patterns， or meters. However， some are written in free verse. Most poems make use of highly concise， musical， and emotionally charged language.
Rhyme is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words. End rhyme occurs when rhyming words appear at the ends of lines. internal rhyme occurs when rhyming words fall within a line.
118. Iambic pentameter（五音步诗）
Iambic pentameter is the most common English meter， in which each foot contains an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable.
119. Rhyme royal
Rhyme royal is a poetic pattern with seven iambic pentameters rhyming ababbcc which pronounce a final short e， and often end in an 11th， unstressed syllable.
120. Shakespearean sonnet（莎士比亚十四行诗）
Shakespearean sonnet consisting of three quatrains and a couplet （ rhyming abab cdcd efef gg）。