31. Hemingway Code Hero（海明威式英雄）
Hemingway Code Hero， also called code hero， is one who， wounded but strong more sensitive， enjoys the pleasures of life （sex， alcohol， sport） in face of ruin and death， and maintains， through some notion of a code， an ideal of himself.
2> barnes in the sun also Rises， Henry in a Farewell to arms and Santiago in the old man and the sea are typical of Hemingway Code Hero
Impressionism is a style of painting that gives the impression made by the subject on the artist without much attention to details. Writers accepted the same conviction that the personal attitudes and moods of the writer were legitimate elements in depicting character or setting or action.2>briefly， it is a style of literature characterized by the creation of general impressions and moods rather that realistic mood.
33. Postmodernism（后现代主义）（来源于自考 51 网 zikao51.com）
It is a disputed term that has occupied much recent debate about contemporary culture since the early 1980s. in its simplest and least satisfactory sense it refers generally to the phase of 20th century western culture that succeeded the reign of hign modernism， thus indicating the products of the “space age” after some time in the 1950s. More often， though it is applied to a cultural condition prevailing in the advanced capitalist societies since the 1960s， characterized by a superabundance of disconnected images and styles. In this sense， post modernity is said to be a culture of fragmentary sensations， eclectic nostalgia， disposable simulacra， and promiscuous superficiality， in which the traditionally valued qualities of depth， coherence， meaning originality and authenticity are evacuated or dissolved amid the random swirl of empty signals.
34. Confessional poetry（自白派诗歌）
It is an autobiographical mode of verse that reveals the poet‘s personal problems with unusual frankness. The term is usually applied to certain poets of the United states from the late 1950s to the late 1960s， notably Robert Lowell. The term’s distinctive sense depends on the candid examination of what were at the time of writing virtually unmentionable kinds of private distress. The genuine strengths of confessional poets， combined with the pity evoked by their high suicide rate， encouraged in the reading public a romantic confusion between poetic excellence and inner torment.
35. The New York School（纽约派）
The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City， critics argued that their work was a reaction to the confessional‘s movement in contemporary poetry. Their poetic subject matter was often light， violent， or observational， while their writing style was often described as cosmopolitan and world-traveled. the poets often drew inspiration from surrealism and the contemporary avant-garde art movement， in particular the action painting of their friends in the New York City art circle.there are also commonalities between the New York School and the earlier Beat Generation poets active in 1940s and 1950s New York City.
36. The Absurd （荒谬派）（来源于自考 51 网 zikao51.com）
It is a term derived from the existentialism of Albert Camus， and often applied to the modern sense of human purposelessness in a universe without meaning or value. Many 20th century writers of prose fiction have stressed the absurd nature of human existence： notable instances are the novels and stories of Franz Kafka， in which the characters face alarmingly incomprehensible predicaments.
37. The Black Mountain Poets（黑山派诗人）
The Black Mountain Poets refer to a group of poets active on the contemporary scene， as these people were either associated with Black Mountain college， or with Black Mountain Review， they have become known as “The Black Mountain Poets”2> the leading figure of this school of poetry was Charles Olson.
Realism was a loosely used term meaning truth to the observed facts of life （especially when they are gloomy）。 Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity.
Allegory is a story told to explain or teach something. Especially a long and complicated story with an underlying meaning different from the surface meaning of the story itself.2>allegorical novels use extended metaphors to convey moral meanings or attack certain social evils. characters in these novels often stand for different values such as virtue and vice.3>Bunyan‘s Pilgrim’s Progress， Melville‘s Moby Dick are such examples.
Alliteration means a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a line or group.
2>alliteration is a traditional poetic device in English literature.
3>Robert Frost‘s Acquainted with the Night is a case in point：“ I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet”
Ballad is a story in poetic from to be sung or recited. in more exact literary terminology， a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimester.（抑扬格四音步与抑扬格三音步诗行交替出现的四行叙事诗）
2>.ballads were passed down from generation to generation. 3>Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a 19th century English ballad.
Epic， in poetry， refers to a long work dealing with the actions of goods and heroes.
2>Epic poems are not merely entertaining stories of legendary or historical heroes； they summarize and express the nature or ideals of an entire nation at a significant or crucial period of its history.
3>Beowulf is the greatest national Epic of the Anglo-Saxons.
It is a short poem， usually a romantic narrative， intended to be sung or recited by a minstrel.
44. Romance（传奇） （来源于武汉大学自考专业网 zikao51.com）
Romance is a popular literary form in the medic England.
2>it sings knightly adventures or other heroic deeds.
3> chivalry is the spirit of the romance.
The name is derived from the fact that certain 12th and 13th century French poems on Alexander the Great were written in this meter.
2>it is an iambic line of six feet， which is the French heroic verse.