16. American Romanticism（美国浪漫主义）
Romanticism refers to an artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature， emphasis on the individual‘s expression of emotion and imagination， departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism， and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. The romantic period in American literature stretches from the end of the 18th century through the outbreak of the civil war. It was an age of great westward expansion， of the increasing gravity of the slavery question， of an intensification of the spirit of embattled sectionalism in the south， and of a powerful impulse to reform in the north. In literature it was America’s first great creative period， a full flowering of the romantic impulse on American soil. Although foreign influences were strong， American romanticism exhibited from the very outset distinct features of its own. First， American romanticism was in essence the expression of “a real new experience”and contained “an alien quality” for the simple reason that “the spirit of the place” was radically new and alien. Second， puritan influence over American romanticism was conspicuously noticeable. Emerging as new writers of strength and creative power were the novelists Hawthorne， Melville， the poets Dickinson， Whitman， the essayists Thoreau， Emerson. These American writers had made a great literary period by capturing on their pages the enthusiasm and the optimism of that dream.
17. Transcendentalism（超验主义） （来源：自考365 网 zikao365.com）
Transcendentalism is literature， philosophical and literary movement that flourished in new England from about 1836 to 1860. it is the summit of American Romanticism. it originated among a small group of intellectuals who were reacting against the orthodoxy of Calvinism and the rationalism of the Unitarian Church， developing instead their own faith centering on the divinity of humanity and the natural world. Transcendentalism derived some of its basic idealistic concepts from romantic German philosophy， and from such English authors as Coleridge and Wordsworth. Its mystical aspects were partly influenced by Indian and Chinese religious teachings. Although Transcendentalism was never a rigorously systematic philosophy， it had some basic tenets that were generally shared by its adherents. The beliefs that God is immanent in each person and in nature and that individual intuition is the highest source of knowledge led to an optimistic emphasis on individualism， self-reliance， and rejection of traditional authority. The ideas of Transcendentalism were most eloquently expressed by Ralph waldo Emerson in such essays as Nature， and by Henry David Thoreau in his book Walden.
超验主义是从1836至1860于新英格兰发起的一场文学，哲学以及艺术运动。即浪漫主义的顶点。由于一小群知识分子反对加尔文教派和唯一神论教派理性的形式主义，他们从而提出人与自然的神圣这一信念。超验主义受到德国浪漫主义哲学以及英国浪漫主义作家柯勒律治和沃兹华斯的影响，还在一定程度上受到东方古典哲学和宗教的影响。尽管超验主义思想并不能算是严格意义上的哲学， 但是它还是有一些基本原则的。超验主义者认为人人都有内在的神性，只有通过接触自然才能使神性与人的天性相互融合。从而超验主义十分强调个人主义，自立，拒绝传统权威思想。超验主义思想在爱默生的<论自然> 和梭罗的<瓦尔登湖>等书中表现得淋漓尽致。
18. the Age of Realism（现实主义时期）
1）。Realism was a reaction against Romanticism and paved the way to Modernism； 2）。During this period a new generation of writers， dissatisfied with the Romantic ideas in the older generation， came up with a new inspiration. This new attitude was characterized by a great interest in the realities of life. It aimed at the interpretation of the realities of any aspect of life， free from subjective prejudice， idealism， or romantic color. Instead of thinking about the mysteries of life and death and heroic individualism， people‘s attention was now directed to the interesting features of everyday existence， to what was brutal or sordid， and to the open portrayal of class struggle；3） so writers began to describe the integrity of human characters reacting under various circumstances and picture the pioneers of the far west， the new immigrants and the struggles of the working class； 4） Mark Twain Howells and Henry James are three leading figures of the American Realism.
19. American Naturalism（美国自然主义文学）
The American naturalists accepted the more negative interpretation of Darwin‘s evolutionary theory and used it to accout for the behavior of those characters in literary works who were regarded as more or less complex combinations of inherited attributes， their habits conditioned by social and economic forces.2） naturalism is evolved from realism when the author’s tone in writing becomes less serious and less sympathetic but more ironic and more pessimistic. It is no more than a gloomy philosophical approach to reality， or to human existence.3>Dreiser is a leading figure of his school.
Naturalism is a literary movement related to and sometimes described as an extreme form of realism but which may be more appropriately considered as a parallel to philosophic Naturalism. 2） as a more deliberate kind of realism Naturalism usually involves a view of human beings as passive victims of natural forces and social environment. In Naturalism a more documentary-like approach is in evidence， with a great stress on how environment and heredity shape people. 3） As a literary movement， Naturalism was initiated in France. 4） Naturalist fiction aspired to a sociological objectivity， offering detailed and fully researched investigations into unexplored concerns of modern society.
21. Local Colorism（乡土文学）
Generally speaking， the writings of local colorists are concerned with the life of a small， well-defined region or province. The characteristic setting is the isolated small town.
2） Local colorists were consciously nostalgic historians of a vanishing way of life， recorders of a present that faded before their eyes. Yet for all their sentimentality， they dedicated themselves to minutely accurate descriptions of the life of their regions， they worked from personal experience to record the facts of a local environment and suggested that the native life was shaped by the curious conditions of the local.
3） major local colorists is Mark Twain.
Imagism came into being in Britain and U.S around 1910 as a reaction to the traditional English poetry to express the sense of fragmentation and dislocation.
2>the imagists， with Ezra Pound leading the way， hold that the most effective means to express these momentary impressions is through the use of one dominant image.
3>imagism is characterized by the following three poetic principles：
A. direct treatment of subject matter；
B. economy of expression；
C. as regards rhythm， to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase， not in the sequence of metronome.
4> pound‘s In a Station of the Metro is a well-known imagist poem.
23. The Lost Generation（迷惘的一代）
The lost generation is a term first used by Stein to describe the post-war I generation of American writers： men and women haunted by a sense of betrayal and emptiness brought about by the destructiveness of the war.
2>full of youthful idealism， these individuals sought the meaning of life， drank excessively， had love affairs and created some of the finest American literature to date.
3>the three best-known representatives of lost generation are F. Scott Fitzgerald， Hemingway and John dos Passos.
Expressionism refers to a movement in Germany early in the 20th century. In which a number of painters sought to avoid the representation of external reality and ，instead， to project a highly personal or subjective vision of the world.
2> expressionism is a reaction against realism or naturalism， aiming at presenting a post-war world violently distorted.
3> in a further sense， the term is sometimes applied to the belief that literary works are essentially expressions of their authors‘moods and thoughts； this has been the dominant assumption about literature since the rise of romanticism.
25. The Beat Generation（垮掉的一代）（来源：自考365 网 zikao365.com）
The members of The Beat Generation were new bohemian libertines， who engaged in a spontaneous， sometimes messy， creativity.
2> The Beat writers produced a body of written work controversial both for its advocacy of non-conformity and for its non-conforming style.
3> the major beat writings are Allen Ginsberg‘s Howl. Howl became the manifesto of The Beat Generation.
26. Jazz Age（爵士时代）
The Jazz Age describes the period of the 1920s and 1930s， the years between World War I and World War II. Particularly in North America. With the rise of the great depression， the values of this age saw much decline. Perhaps the most representative literary work of the age is American writer Fitzgerald‘s The Great Gatsby. Highlighting what some describe as the decadence and hedonism， as well as the growth of individualism. Fitzgerald is largely credited with coining the term“ Jazz Age”。
An anti-rational movement of imaginative liberation in European in art and literature in the 1920s and 1930s， which launched by Andre Breton after his break from the Dada group in 1922. Surrealism seeks to break down the boundaries between rationality and irrationality， exploring the resources and revolutionary energies of dreams， hallucinations and sexual desire. Influenced both by the symbolists and by Sigmund Freud‘s theories of the unconscious， the surrealists experimented with automatic writing and with the free association of random images brought in surprising juxtaposition.
28. Metaphysical poets（玄学派诗人）
It is the name given to a diverse group of 17th century English poets whose work is notable for its ingenious use of intellectual and theological concepts in surprising conceits， strange paradoxes and far-fetched imagery. The leading Metaphysical poet was John Donne， whose colloquial， argumentative abruptness of rhythm and tone distinguishes his style from the conventions of Elizabethan love lyrics.
29. New Criticism（武汉大学自考专业新批评主义）
New Criticism is a movement in American literary criticism from the 1930s to the 1960s， concentrating on the verbal complexities and ambiguities of short poems considered as self-sufficient objects without attention to their origins or effects. The name comes from John Chrisom‘s book The New Criticism.
Feminism incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women and an ideology of social transformation aiming to create a world for women beyond simple social equality.
2>in general， feminism is ideology of women‘s liberation based on the belief that women suffer injustice because of their sex. Under this broad umbrella various feminisms offer differing analyses of the causes， or agents， of female oppression.
3> definitions of feminism by feminists tend to be shaped by their training， ideology or race. So， for example， Marxist and socialist feminists stress the interaction within feminism of class with gender and focus on social distinctions between men and women. Black feminists argue much more for an integrated analysis which can unlock the multiple systems of oppression.