Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.
it emphasizes the dignity of human beings and the importance of the present life. Humanists voiced their beliefs that man was the center of the universe and man did not only have the right to enjoy the beauty of the present life， but had the ability to perfect himself and to perform wonders.
02. Renaissance（文艺复兴） （来源：自考 365 网 zikao365.com）
The word “Renaissance”means “rebirth”， it meant the reintroduction into westerm Europe of the full cultural heritage of Greece and Rome.
2>the essence of the Renaissance is Humanism. Attitudes and feelings which had been characteristic of the 14th and 15th centuries persisted well down into the era of Humanism and reformation.
3> the real mainstream of the english Renaissance is the Elizabethan drama with william shakespeare being the leading dramatist.
03. Metaphysical poetry（玄学派诗歌）
Metaphysical poetry is commonly used to name the work of the 17th century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne.
2>with a rebellious spirit， the Metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry.
3>the diction is simple as compared with that of the Elizabethan or the Neoclassical periods， and echoes the words and cadences of common speech.4>the imagery is drawn from actual life.
Classcism refers to a movement or tendency in art， literature， or music that reflects the principles manifested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Classicism emphasizes the traditional and the universal， and places value on reason， clarity， balance， and order. Classicism， with its concern for reason and universal themes， is traditionally opposed to Romanticism， which is concerned with emotions and personal themes.
Enlightenment movement was a progressive philosophical and artistic movement which flourished in france and swept through western Europe in the 18th century.
2> the movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance from 14th century to the mid-17th century.
3>its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.
4>it celebrated reason or rationality， equality and science. It advocated universal education.
5>famous among the great enlighteners in england were those great writers like Alexander pope. Jonathan swift.etc.
In the field of literature， the enlightenment movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.
2>this tendency is known as neoclassicism. The Neoclassicists held that forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Homer and Virgil and those of the contemporary French ones.
3> they believed that the artistic ideals should be order， logic， restrained emotion and accuracy， and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.
07. The Graveyard School（墓地派诗歌）
The Graveyard School refers to a school of poets of the 18th century whose poems are mostly devoted to a sentimental lamentation or meditation on life. Past and present， with death and graveyard as themes.
2>Thomas Gray is considered to be the leading figure of this school and his Elegy written in a country churchyard is its most representative work.
1>In the mid-18th century， a new literary movement called romanticism came to Europe and then to England.
2>It was characterized by a strong protest against the bondage of neoclassicism， which emphasized reason， order and elegant wit. Instead， romanticism gave primary concern to passion， emotion， and natural beauty.
3>In the history of literature. Romanticism is generally regarded as the thought that designates a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and experience. 4> The English romantic period is an age of poetry which prevailed in England from 1798 to 1837. The major romantic poets include Wordsworth， Byron and Shelley.
09. Byronic Hero（拜伦式英雄）
Byronic hero refers to a proud， mysterious rebel figure of noble origin.
2> with immense superiority in his passions and powers， this Byronic Hero would carry on his shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society. And would rise single-handedly against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government， in religion， or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies.
3> Byron‘s chief contribution to English literature is his creation of the “Byronic Hero”
10. Critical Realism（批判现实主义）
Critical Realism is a term applied to the realistic fiction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
2> It means the tendency of writers and intellectuals in the period between 1875 and 1920 to apply the methods of realistic fiction to the criticism of society and the examination of social issues.
3> Realist writers were all concerned about the fate of the common people and described what was faithful to reality.
4> Charles Dickens is the most important critical realist.
The basic theory of the Aesthetic movement—— “art for art‘s sake” was set forth by a French poet， Theophile Gautier， the first Englishman who wrote about the theory of aestheticism was Walter Pater.
2> aestheticism places art above life， and holds that life should imitate art， not art imitate life.
3> According to the aesthetes， all artistic creation is absolutely subjective as opposed to objective. Art should be free from any influence of egoism. Only when art is for art‘s sake， can it be immortal. They believed that art should be unconcerned with controversial issues， such as politics and morality， and that it should be restricted to contributing beauty in a highly polished style.
4> This is one of the reactions against the materialism and commercialism of the Victorian industrial era， as well as a reaction against the Victorian convention of art for morality‘s sake， or art for money’s sake.
12.The Victorian period（维多利亚时期） （来源：自考 365 网 zikao365.com）
In this period， the novel became the most widely read and the most vital and challenging expression of progressive thought. While sticking to the principle of faithful representation of the 18th century realist novel， novelists in this period carried their duty forward to criticism of the society and the defense of the mass.
2> although writing from different points of view and with different techniques， they shared one thing in common， that is， they were all concerned about the fate of the common people. They were angry with the inhuman social institutions， the decaying social morality as represented by the money-worship and Utilitarianism， and the widespread misery， poverty and injustice.
3>their truthful picture of people‘s life and bitter and strong criticism of the society had done much in awakening the public consciousness to the social problems and in the actual improvement of the society.
4> Charles Dickens is the leading figure of the Victorian period.
Modernism is comprehensive but vague term for a movement ， which begin in the late 19th century and which has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century.
2> modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical case.
3> the term pertains to all the creative arts. Especially poetry， fiction， drama， painting， music and architecture.
4> in England from early in the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s， in America from shortly before the first world war and on during the inter-war period， modernist tendencies were at their most active and fruitful.
5>as far as literature is concerned， Modernism reveals a breaking away from established rules， traditions and conventions. fresh ways of looking at man‘s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. It is particularly concerned with language and how to use it and with writing itself.
14. Stream of consciousness（意识流）（or interior monologue）
In literary criticism， Stream of consciousness denotes a literary technique which seeks to describe an individual‘s point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character’s thought processes. Stream of consciousness writing is strongly associated with the modernist movement. Its introduction in the literary context， transferred from psychology， is attributed to May Sinclair. Stream of consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow， tracing as they do a character‘s fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. Famous writers to employ this technique in the English language include James Joyce and William Faulkner.
15. American Puritanism（美国清教主义）
Puritanism was a religious reform that arose within the Church of England in the late 16th century. Under siege from church and crown， it sent an offshoot in the third and fourth decades of the 17th to the northern English colonies in the new world——a migration that laid the foundation for the religious， intellectual， and social order of New England. Puritanism， however， was not only a historically specific phenomenon coincident with the founding of new England， it was also a way of being in the world——a style of response to lived experience——that has reverberated through American life ever since. Doctrinally， puritans adhered to the five points of Calvinism as codified at the synod of dort in 1619：
1） Unconditional election： the idea that God had decreed at the synod of damned and who was saved from before the beginning of the world；
2） limited atonement： the idea that Christ died for the elect only；
3） Total depravity： humanity‘s utter corruption since the fall；
4） Irresistible grace： regeneration as entirely a work of God， which cannot be re3sisted and to which the sinner contributes nothing；
5） The perseverance of the saints： the elect， despite their backsliding and faintness of heart， cannot fall away from grace.
清教主义是16世纪晚期在英国教会内进行的一场宗教改革。在武汉大学自考专业和皇权的双重压力之下，清教的一个分支于17世纪30，40年代迁至美洲新大陆的北方殖民地，他们为新英格兰奠定了宗教、知识和社会秩序的基础。清教主义不仅符合新英格兰成立的特定历史，而且一直反映了美国生活的一种生活方式。从教义上说，清教徒遵循加尔文派于1619年多特宗教会议上制定的五条信条：1）无条件拣选：神没有任凭人在罪中灭亡，而是在创世以前就拣选了一群人旅行拯救； 2）有限救赎： 基督的死只是为了特定数目的选民而死； 3）完全堕落：自从亚当偷吃善恶果后，整个人类都堕落了；4）不可抗拒的恩典：圣灵的能力在罪人心里运行，一直到他认罪悔改方休；5）圣徒的坚守：圣徒是神所挑选的，无论他们如何退步，始终在神的感召下。